What goals do you have for your students? What is it that you want them to know—and what do you want them to be able to do—by the time they've finished your class?
In backward design, you build your course not around predetermined assignments and activities, but around the skills and knowledge you want your students to gain from the experience. Maybe you want them to know how to perform a certain kind of analysis, or to have a critical understanding of a particular theory and its shortcomings, or to know what things changed in a specific historical moment, or to be able to gather information using your discipline’s methodology; there are many possibilities, and you might have many goals for a single class. In backward design, you anchor the development of a course in a careful articulation of the learning goals—just what it is that you want students to learn—and work backward from there.
This model suggests three stages. Any given teacher might move through them in order, or circle back, or some combination of the two. The syllabus design process—especially if one is developing a new course or radically revising an existing course—is often iterative, as work in the later stages leads one to revise what one did in the early stages.
What goals do you have for your students? What is it that you want people to be able to know and do by the time they've finished your class?
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Here are the three phases of backward design:
In this step you’ll also build a semester-long schedule for these activities and assignments, creating the structure that builds to these goals in a feasible and achievable way.
In short, by using backward design, an instructor chooses all course materials and activities in order to support an end objective rather than defining the end objective as a summary of the materials covered along the way. Backward design emphasizes the importance of leaving students with transferable skills, practice in disciplinary methods, and lasting epiphanies. Giving an extra meta-level of foresight to the goals of a course can yield a course with greater impact.
from L.D. Fink, A Self-Directed Guide to Designing Courses for Significant Learning
Planning backward has been helpful. I can now more clearly specify what knowledge and skills are really essential, given my goals for the unit.
Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe
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